WP.TW.1.2.a Description is used often more to create atmosphere and mood: films do this visually, writers do this with words, where the choice of words is more determined by their connotations than by the accuracy of their denotative use.
WP.TW.1.2.a.1 Describe someone / something to allow the reader to experience the topic vividly
WP.TW.1.2.a.2 Create a picture in words
WP.TW.1.2.a.3 Choose words and expressions carefully to achieve the desired effect
WP.TW.1.3.a Argumentative essays present an argument for or against something ('why I believe that women are stronger than men').
WP.TW.1.3.a Argumentative essays tend to be subjectively argued; the defence or attack is consistent and as well argued as possible, but it will inevitably be one-sided; the conclusion clearly states where the writer stands and why.
WP.TW.1.3.a.1 Show a specific opinion or viewpoint and argue to defend or motivate a position
WP.TW.1.3.a.10 Conclude with a strong, clear and convincing statement reflecting the writer's opinion.
WP.TW.1.4 Discursive essay
WP.TW.1.4.a Discursive essays tend to be more balanced, and present various sides of a particular argument; the structure is careful and clearly planned; the tendency is towards objectivity, but the writer can be personal; while emotive language is possible, the best arguments here are won because they make good, reasonable sense. The conclusion leaves the reader in no doubt where the writer stands.
WP.TW.1.4.a.1 Aim to give an objective and balanced view of both sides of an argument
WP.TW.1.4.a.2 Consider various aspects of the topic under discussion
WP.TW.1.4.a.3 Present opposing views impartially
WP.TW.1.4.a.4 Balance the arguments for and against
WP.TW.1.4.a.5 Writing must be lucid, rational and objective.
WP.TW.1.4.a.6 Make well-reasoned and well-supported statements
WP.TW.1.4.a.8 Conclude with an indication of particular opinion
WP.TW.1.5 Reflective essay
WP.TW.1.5.a Reflective essays present the writer's views, ideas, thoughts and feelings on a particular topic, usually something they feel strongly about. It tends to be personal rather than subjective; it needs a careful structure, but does not have to present a clear conclusion. Nor does it have to present a balanced discussion, although it might. It can be witty or serious.
WP.TW.1.5.a.1 Contemplate an idea
WP.TW.1.5.a.2 Give emotional reactions and feelings.
WP.TW.2.1.a While the writing of friendly/ informal letter has largely been replaced by electronic media, e.g., email, fax, and sms among others, learners must still be taught to write letters. The range of writing should span from ordinary letters to the immediate family and friends to informal letters to the press, among others.
WP.TW.2.1.a Learners should write genuine formal letters, and, where possible, send them off and await a reply. Letters requesting information about products, universities, travel, professions, if sent to appropriate concerns, will almost certainly be replied to. The value of the formal letter will then become obvious.
WP.TW.2.1.a.1 Practise different kinds of formal letters, e.g. a letter of application, a letter to the editor of a newspaper, a letter of complaint, etc.
WP.TW.2.1.a.2 Adhere to different requirements of formal letters such as style and structure
WP.TW.2.1.a.11 Reflect a formal conclusion followed by the writer's surname and initials
WP.TW.2.2 Friendly / Informal letter
WP.TW.2.2.a While the writing of friendly/ informal letter has largely been replaced by electronic media, e.g., email, fax, and sms among others, learners must still be taught to write letters. The range of writing should span from ordinary letters to the immediate family and friends to informal letters to the press, among others.
WP.TW.2.2.a.1 Write to people who are close, e.g. friends, family, etc.
WP.TW.2.2.a.2 Write mainly to express an emotion, e.g. congratulate, sympathise, advise, etc.
WP.TW.2.2.a.3 Use informal to semiformal language register and style
WP.TW.2.2.a.6 Contain an introduction, a body and a conclusion
WP.TW.2.2.a.7 Contain only one address, the writer's, with a date in which it was written below it
WP.TW.2.2.a.8 Contain an informal/semi-formal salutation following the writer's address
WP.TW.2.2.a.9 The conclusion ranges from informal to semi-formal followed by the writer's first name
WP.TW.2.3 Agenda of the meeting
WP.TW.2.3.a Writing memoranda, agenda and minutes are only useful if meaningful. The best way for these writing activities to work is to have learners watch a video of, or attend a real meeting and then have them take minutes, deduce the agenda from that, and then compare theirs with the real agenda and minutes of the meeting. Otherwise learners need to be introduced to these formats in a very imaginative way. Create an agenda for a imaginary committee and have the learners write up what they think the minutes could have been, carefully sticking to your agenda.
WP.TW.2.3.a An agenda:
WP.TW.2.3.a.1 Gives an outline of what is to be discussed at a meeting
WP.TW.2.3.a.2 Is sent beforehand to people/delegates who are invited to a meeting
WP.TW.2.3.a.1 Usually drawn up by the chairperson and the secretary, who, among others...
WP.TW.2.3.a.1.a Check minutes of the previous meeting for items that were carried over
WP.TW.2.3.a.1.b Lists and collects items that the meeting may need to address and,
WP.TW.2.3.a.3 Arranges the items according to their importance beforehand
WP.TW.2.3.a.4 Determines how much time would be allocated to each item
WP.TW.2.4.a Record what happened at a meeting
WP.TW.2.4.b Adopt the minutes as a true record in the following meeting
WP.TW.2.4.a Reflect the following:
WP.TW.2.4.a.1 Name of the organisation;
WP.TW.2.4.a.2 The date, the place and the time at which the meeting was held;
WP.TW.2.4.a.3 Attendance register;
WP.TW.2.4.c Quote resolutions word for word
WP.TW.2.4.d Provide a summary of what was proposed and finally agreed upon
WP.TW.2.4.e Write in the past tense
WP.TW.2.4.f Leave out trivialities like jokes
WP.TW.2.4.g Become legal and binding once signed and dated by the chairperson after being read and adopted in the next meeting, remain so until they can be revoked
WP.TW.2.5.a Start and adapt the style to be used, when, where, why (purpose), who (audience) and what
WP.TW.2.5.b Use an opener to attract attention
WP.TW.2.5.c Develop points well and avoid clichés
WP.TW.2.5.d Use contrasting tones (and points) but remain audible
WP.TW.2.5.e Use short sentences with simple ideas, using familiar examples
WP.TW.2.5.f Balance criticisms with reasonable alternatives
WP.TW.2.5.g Consider the closing. Leaving the audience with a thought (or two)
WP.TW.2.5.h Use visual or physical aids but words must come first
WP.TW.2.5.i Using notes is optional, and only for reference
WP.TW.2.5.j Use language that expresses maturity, values and background
WP.TW.2.6 E-mail / sms
WP.TW.2.6.a To inform and maintain a relationship
WP.TW.2.6.a The recipient's address – which, in most cases, is the recipient's name and the server point, as well as the country in which the server point is based. For example, moloiq (name)@ webmail. (server) za (country). Moloi.firstname.lastname@example.org
WP.TW.2.6.a.1 CC: these may be the recipients whose attention is called to the email.
WP.TW.2.6.a.2 Subject: This is a summary of the content of the email.
WP.TW.2.6.a.4 Sender's name.
WP.TW.2.6.b NB: The sender's address reflects automatically when the email is received. The sender may choose to provide other contact details at the end. This is called a signature
WP.TW.2.7.a Written record of an interview:
WP.TW.2.7.a.1 Give the names of the speaker on the left side of the page
WP.TW.2.7.a.2 Use a colon after the name of the character who is speaking
WP.TW.2.7.a.3 Use a new line to indicate each new speaker
WP.TW.2.7.a.4 Probe the interviewee by asking questions
WP.TW.2.7.a.5 Portray the interviewee's strong points, talents, weak points, etc.
WP.TW.2.8 Report (formal and informal)
WP.TW.2.8.a Reports are very formal documents, and work best when what is examined is very real and important to the learners. There is nothing worse than writing artificial reports, or reports on topics that have no interest to the writer.
WP.TW.2.8.a.1 Give exact feedback of a situation, e.g. accident, any findings
WP.TW.2.8.a.2 Reflect a title, introduction (background, purpose and scope), body (Who? Why? Where? When? What? How?), conclusions, recommendations, references, appendices
WP.TW.2.8.a.3 Plan: collect and organise information; write facts
WP.TW.2.9.a Since most people nowadays make use of templates, it may be worthwhile finding out what makes a good template, and how to adapt and fill them in most usefully. It is useful to note that every CV must address a situation, e.g. a CV for a particular job should speak mainly of the writer's involvement in that particular area.
WP.TW.2.9.a.1 Present yourself in a document to the world
WP.TW.2.9.a.2 Present a strong, first impression
WP.TW.2.9.a.3 Present information clearly, objectively and concisely
WP.TW.2.9.a.4 Address the post for which the candidate seeks employment.
WP.TW.2.9.a.1.a Personal details
WP.TW.2.9.a.1.b Formal Qualifications
WP.TW.2.9.a.1.c Work experience (if applicable)
WP.TW.2.10 Diary entry
WP.TW.2.10.a A diary is a portrayal of daily events
WP.TW.2.10.b Present his/her evaluation of the day or event
WP.TW.2.10.c Write from the writer's point of view; the first person narration is the most appropriate approach