WP.LS.2.5 Express themselves on values, attitudes, bias, stereotypes, emotive language, persuasive and manipulative language, for example in persuasive texts such as argumentative essays, newspaper articles.
WP.LS.4.2.7 generalisations: generally, in conclusion; and
WP.LS.4.2.8 concluding paragraph: never a summary of what has been written. A concluding paragraph needs to leave the reader with an idea or a thought that will stay with them after the rest of the essay has been forgotten. A summary seldom does that, and is easily forgettable.
WP.LS.5 Punctuation and spelling
WP.LS.5.1 Use of capitals, commas, quotation marks, colons, underlining, italics, semi-colons, apostrophe, hyphens, dashes, parentheses.
WP.TT.1.1.1.d use a captivating introductory paragraph;
WP.TT.1.1.1.e ensure that the ending is either satisfying, or ambiguous, even confusing, but never predictable,
WP.TT.1.1.1.f use direct speech if you want immediacy or to empower a character; indirect speech if want your reader to be distanced from the speaker; and
WP.TT.1.1.1.g use descriptive elements where necessary, but good stories are very compact and writers remove every word that does not have a purpose. The 'fifty-word' short story is often a good activity to make this point.
WP.TT.1.2.1 Description is both practical and ornamental. Both require clean, simple language. Draw learners away from writing that is overly descriptive, adjective-laden, or simply gushingly over the top. Study descriptive passages from good writers: many use hardly any adjectives to create descriptions that work exceptionally well. Have learners imitate such passages by continuing the description from where you have cut the passage. The practical description is less interesting, but socially more important: describing simple things accurately, for example, a stapler, a cell phone. Or describing people from pictures or photographs provided. Description is often used more to create atmosphere and mood than picture: films do this visually, writers do this with words, where the choice of words is more determined by their connotations than by the accuracy of their denotative use.
WP.TT.1.2.1 Here are some suggestions for writing a descriptive essay:
WP.TT.1.2.1.a describe someone/something to allow the reader to experience the topic vividly;
WP.TT.1.2.1.b create a picture in words;
WP.TT.1.2.1.c choose words and expressions carefully to achieve the desired effect;
WP.TT.1.3.1 Argumentative essays tend to be subjectively argued; the defence or attack is consistent and as well argued as possible, but it will inevitably be one-sided; the conclusion clearly states where the writer stands and why.
WP.TT.1.3.2 Discursive essays tend to be more balanced, and present various sides of a particular argument; the structure is careful and clearly planned; the tendency is towards objectivity, but the writer can be personal; while emotive language is possible, the best arguments here are won because they make good, reasonable sense. The conclusion leaves the reader in no doubt as to where the writer stands.
WP.TT.1.3.3 Reflective essays present the writer's views, ideas, thoughts, and feelings on a particular topic, usually something they feel strongly about. It tends to be personal rather than subjective; it needs a careful structure, but does not have to present a clear conclusion. Nor does it have to present a balanced discussion, although it might. It can be witty or serious.
WP.TT.1.3.4 Argumentative essays present an argument for or against something ('Why I believe that women are stronger than men'); discursive essays present a balanced argument for and against something the topic addresses, with the writer's view only reflected in the conclusion ('Are women stronger than men? Yes and no, but I'm settling for yes'); reflective essays present a set of thoughts and ideas about a topic, with no particular attempt to argue for or against anything ('the modern woman: my thoughts').
WP.TT.1.4 Literary essay
WP.TT.1.4.1 These essays present the writer's response to a literary text that is interpretative, evaluative, reflective, even on occasion personal. Arguments are presented and supported or illustrated by reference to the text; the language of the text may be explored and shown to possess particular linguistic or literary qualities. The style is formal, but not necessarily dryly objective. Personal responses are possible in some essays, especially when asked for.
WP.TT.2 Transanctional texts:
WP.TT.2.1 Official/Formal letter
WP.TT.2.1.1 Writing formal letters still remains an important part of everyday life. Learners must still adhere to prescribed forms and formats. Learners need to write genuine formal letters and, where possible, send them off and await a reply. Formal letters written without a real context can be a very boring activity. Letters requesting information about products, universities, travel, professions, if sent to appropriate concerns, will almost certainly be replied to. The value of the formal letter will then become obvious. Similarly, send press letters to local newspapers, especially if topical issues form the content. Even if one is printed, the effect on a class is significant. The content, not the format, is crucial in these documents.
WP.TT.2.1.1 Practise different kinds of formal letters, e.g. a letter of application, a letter to the editor of a newspaper, a letter of complaint, etc.
WP.TT.2.1.1.a Adhere to different requirements of formal letters such as style and structure.
WP.TT.2.1.1.f Writing should reflect a formal conclusion followed by the writer's surname and initials.
WP.TT.2.2 Friendly/Informal letter
WP.TT.2.2.1 While the writing of friendly/informal letter has been replaced by electronic media (e.g. email, fax, and sms), learners must still be taught to write them. The range of writing should span from ordinary letters to the immediate family and friends to informal letters to the press, for example.
WP.TT.2.2.1 The following are suggestions for the writing of friendly or informal letters:
WP.TT.2.2.1.a use informal to semi-formal language register and style;
WP.TT.2.2.1.d include an introduction, a body and a conclusion;
WP.TT.2.2.1.e include only one address, the writer's, with a date on which it was written below it;
WP.TT.2.2.1.f contain an informal/a semi-formal salutation following the writer's address, and
WP.TT.2.2.1.g allow the conclusion to range from informal to semi-formal followed by the writer's first name.
WP.TT.2.3 Agenda of the meeting
WP.TT.2.3.1 Writing memoranda, agenda, and minutes is useful only if meaningful. The best way for these writing activities to work is to have learners watch a video of or attend a real meeting and then have them take minutes, deduce the agenda from that, and then compare theirs with the real agenda and minutes of the meeting. Otherwise learners need to be introduced to these formats in a very imaginative way. Create an agenda yourself for an entirely imaginary committee and have the learners write up what they think the minutes could have been, carefully adhering to your agenda. This is, of course, a completely different writing activity from writing real minutes.
WP.TT.2.3.1.a Give an outline of what is to be discussed at a meeting.
WP.TT.2.3.1.b Send the outline beforehand to people/delegates who are invited to a meeting.
WP.TT.2.3.1.c Arrange the items beforehand according to their importance.
WP.TT.2.3.1.d Determine how much time would be allocated to each item.
WP.TT.2.4.1 Record what happened at a meeting.
WP.TT.2.4.2 Reflect the following:
WP.TT.2.4.2.a the name of the organisation;
WP.TT.2.4.2.b the date on which and the place, and time at which the meeting was held;
WP.TT.2.4.2.c the attendance register.
WP.TT.2.4.3 Quote resolutions word for word.
WP.TT.2.4.4 Provide a summary of what was proposed and finally agreed upon.
WP.TT.2.5.1.d Use short sentences with simple ideas, using familiar examples.
WP.TT.2.5.1.e Balance criticisms with reasonable alternatives.
WP.TT.2.5.1.f The conclusion is important, and is never a summary of what has been written.
WP.TT.2.5.2.a Reflect a conversation between two or more people.
WP.TT.2.5.2.b Record exchanges as they occur, directly from the speaker's point of view.
WP.TT.2.5.2.c Use a new line to indicate each new speaker.
WP.TT.2.5.2.d Advise characters (or readers) on how to speak or present the action given in brackets before the words are spoken.
WP.TT.2.5.2.e Sketch a scenario before writing.
WP.TT.2.5.2.f Dialogues are a good place to start a writing programme, since good dialogues reflect spoken English as far as that is possible on the page. Dialogues do not have to be between people only.
WP.TT.2.5.3.a Probe the interviewee by asking questions.
WP.TT.2.5.3.b Give the names of the speakers on the left side of the page.
WP.TT.2.5.3.c Use a new line to indicate each new speaker.
WP.TT.2.5.3.d Interviews are essentially transcripts and that is what must happen here: 'artificial' interviews may as well become narrative compositions. When learners transcribe an interview, they quickly learn the difference between spoken and written English, and they will discover that presenting a readable interview almost always involves careful editing. This is the value of having learners write interviews, not so much the content itself.
WP.TT.2.5.4 Report (formal and informal)
WP.TT.2.5.4.a Reports are mainly very formal documents. They work best when what is examined is real and important to the learners. There is nothing worse than writing artificial reports, or reports on topics that have no interest to the writer.
WP.TT.2.5.4.a.1 Give exact feedback of a situation, for example an accident, any findings.
WP.TT.2.5.4.a.2 Reflect a title, introduction (background, purpose, and scope), body (Who?, Why?, Where?, When?, What?, How?), conclusions, recommendations, references, appendices.
WP.TT.2.5.4.a.3 Plan, collect, and organise information; write facts.
WP.TT.2.6.1 Reviews seldom follow a set pattern. They do not have to cover any specific aspects of a book, film, or CD. Generally, reviewers establish what it is they are reviewing and who is involved, but after that anything goes. Good reviews attempt to be fair but honest; bad reviews are merely a personal outpouring of gush or vitriol. Humour is not uncommon in reviews: for some reviewers it is their trademark. Present reviews from different sources to show learners how varied this writing form can be.
WP.TT.2.6.1.a Reflect an individual's response to a work of art, film, book, occasion, etc.
WP.TT.2.6.1.d Giving relevant facts, for example, the name of the author/producer/artist, the title of the book/work, the name of the publisher/production company, as well as the price (where applicable).
WP.TT.2.7.4 Give a succinct title and add a clear sub-title.
WP.TT.2.7.5 Start with the most important facts: the who, what, how, when, where, why, and to what degree.
WP.TT.2.8 Magazine article
WP.TT.2.8.1 More often than not, in magazine articles the personal likes and dislikes and the stylistic idiosyncrasies of the writer are foremost, and this should be encouraged in learners. They need also to write serious magazine articles about anything they take seriously, in addition to funny articles in which they can mock, ridicule, make fun of, laugh at, or criticise any suitable topic. Most of the magazine articles learners read are probably of this kind.
WP.TT.2.8.2 The internet is full of articles, and while their style and content are not seriously different from those of their written counterparts, it is worth examining them, particularly as they appear in blogs, which is now a widely acknowledged form of writing. Having learners set up their own blogs (on paper, though there are no doubt learners who already have their own blogs) provides a rich writing context, combining careful attention to audience, immediacy of the content, and appropriate tone.
WP.TT.2.8.1 Observe the following:
WP.TT.2.8.1.a The heading must be attractive and interesting.
WP.TT.2.8.1.b The style should be personal, speaking directly to the reader.
WP.TT.2.8.1.c The style can be descriptive and figurative, appealing to the imagination of the readers